What to see in Rome in one day? We prepared a route for the most significant places of the Eternal City. You will learn how to find the key to the Paradise of St. Peter, what happened on the "street of panic" and where to find the monument, the jewelry for which was collected throughout the city. Read without delay.
If you are a fan of relaxed walks around the city - this route is what you need. We chose the most significant places for him and built them in a convenient sequence so that in one day we can show you everything that is important to see in Rome. Keep in mind, following this route, you will only have time to inspect all the sights from outside. To visit all the places you will definitely need a few days.
Saint Paul's Cathedral
The symbolic reference point for this route was St. Peter's Cathedral, the largest construction of the smallest state on the planet. Yes, do not be surprised, but the main Catholic cathedral of the world is not in Italy, but on the lands of the Vatican. So in one day you can visit at once in two countries.
The construction of this version of St. Peter's Cathedral was reminiscent of Brazilian soap operas. There were intrigues, there were rumors, architects were changing. At various times the greatest masters worked on it: Bramante - the architect of the High Renaissance, Raphael, Michelangelo, Bernini. Tell the cat in two words will not work.
St. Peter's Square
TRAVELME, EVGENIA TSVANKINA
The grandiose square in front of St. Peter's Cathedral was designed by the famous architect Lorenzo Bernini. As a frame, he built a semi-circular colonnade, why Piazza San Pietro, if you look at it from above, got the shape of St. Peter's key. Remember, in the Gospel of Matthew it was said that Jesus gave Peter the keys to heaven? So, the area in the performance of Bernini turned out to be not just beautiful, but also deeply symbolic, as if taking in their embrace parishioners. You can see the key of paradise by climbing into the dome of St. Peter's Cathedral.
In the middle of the Piazza San Pietro there is an obelisk - the one that once adorned the circus of Nero and then was brought by Caligula from Heliopolis. If you believe the legends, he was a silent witness to the execution of St. Peter, which happened in the gardens of the circus of Nero. It turns out that this obelisk is the oldest object of the square!
Bernini was undeniably a very talented architect, in his works many still see secret signs and riddles. In particular, St. Peter's Square became one of the main places of action of the adventure novel by Dan Brown "Angels and Demons." For those who read it, for sure, it will be interesting to see everything live.
From the Piazza San Pietro to the center of Rome is a wide street - Via della Conchiliazione (literally translated as "Street of Reconciliation"). Paradoxically, it was built on the orders of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. On it we will go further - towards the quay of the Tiber, looking along the way chic palazzos, churches and numerous shops.
Castle of Saint Angela
FLICKR, MARC J
At the sight of this unassailable bastion, many people have the question: "where does he get such an easy and soaring name?". It did not appear immediately. At first it was a tomb built especially for Emperor Hadrian and his family members, but then the remains and all subsequent emperors, down to Septimius Severus, were buried there. Later, in 271-275, this mausoleum became part of the Aurelian Wall and served military purposes.
And only in the VI century, when the plague raged in Italy, the castle received its current name. In the year 590, Pope Gregory I the Great, together with a penitential procession, walked through the city in the midst of an epidemic. As they passed the mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian, the Pope saw an angel on top of the fortress. It was the archangel Michael, who put his flaming sword in its sheath, which meant - prayers of believers were heard, and the plague came to an end. Since then, this mausoleum began to be called only the castle of the Holy Angel.
Later he managed to visit even the prison, and now there is the National Museum, where you can see a lot of historical artifacts and treasures that were once hidden by the Popes within the castle walls. The Armory Chamber, a museum of military history and an old library are also located here.
Bridge of the Holy Angel
FLICKR, VATICAN TOURS
This crossing across the Tiber was built simultaneously with the mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian in 134-139 years and was formerly called the Hadrian's bridge or the bridge Elia - according to the second name of the ruler. After the renaming of the tomb in the castle of Saint Angela, the bridge also changed its name. And later, in the XVII century, it appeared statues of the apostles Peter and Paul and 10 more sculptures depicting angels. So, if suddenly someone from the "experts" starts to authoritatively declare, they say, the bridge was named because of the angels on it, you can safely assert the opposite: figures appeared on it fifteen thousand years later.
If you take a closer look at the angels, you can see that each of them holds an object in his hands. All these are attributes of the death penalty of Jesus Christ: a crown of thorns, a column of scourging, a cross, rods, a table for mockery, a sponge with vinegar instead of water, a spear, nails, a funeral handkerchief of Christ ... These sculptures were created by the sculptor Lorenzo Bernini along with his disciples. It is believed that two of them - an angel with a crown and an angel with a plate "INRI" - created by the master himself, and the rest - the work of his followers.
From the opposite side of the bridge there are two chapels. They were built in memory of the tragic events of the Jubilee in 1450. Then on the crossing thousands of pilgrims gathered, hurrying to St. Peter's Cathedral for the feast. At the time of the procession of the human crowd, the bridge's balustrades could not stand and together with the people collapsed into the Tiber. Many drowned, but even more died in the panicking crowd, which rushed away from the bridge. Since then, the street leading to Piazza Navona has been called "Via Panico". On it we will go further.
We go deep into the center of Rome, where one of the busiest squares of the city is located - Piazza Navona. It has an oval shape, because earlier in this place was the stadium, and later around it began to build houses. In Navona square there are three magnificent fountains and the church of Saint Agnes.
At the present time, mass festivities often take place here, but even on the most ordinary day there are many artists, street musicians and artists. It seems that the atmosphere of the holiday always reigns in this square!
Not far from Piazza Navona there is another square - Piazza della Rotonda, where not only is the greatest monument of architecture, but a real miracle of engineering thought of the ancient Romans - the Pantheon. This is a huge structure - the Temple of all the gods. And for the composition, and for its design, it is unique. Nothing like this at the beginning of the II century of our era has not yet been built.
To be absolutely accurate, the Pantheon existed on this site even earlier, but in the year 80 the old building burned down. Instead, in 126 a new one was built, which was markedly different from the previous one and very well preserved to our days.
Above the entrance to the temple there is an inscription in Latin, which in translation means the following: "Mark Agrippa, the son of Lucius, elected consul for the third time, erected this." We are talking about the builder of the first (burnt) Pantheon, so this inscription serves as a kind of "curtsey" in his honor.
It is curious that originally the Pantheon was a pagan temple, but thanks to the fact that in 609 it was consecrated as the Christian Church of St. Mary and the Martyrs, he managed to survive to this day.
Inside the Pantheon is a round room decorated with columns and multicolored marble. Above is a tall dome with a round hole in the middle. This is the only source of natural light in the temple, there are no other windows here. However, this illumination during the day is quite enough, and in the summer noon the descending pillar of light becomes practically tangible.
In the side chapels of the Pantheon are buried the famous painter and architect Rafael Santi, the first king of United Italy Victor Emmanuel II and his son Umberto I.
Further, to get to the Trevi fountain, you will need to cross one of the central streets of Rome - Via del Corso. From it several streets lead to the biggest fountain of the city. This stunning construction is literally "embedded" in Pali's Pali. The width of this sculptural composition is 20 m, and the height is even greater - 26 m. Thus, the Trevi Fountain occupies almost the entire area in front of the Palace.
It seems that this is a frozen scene of a giant marble theater, and people around them are spectators constantly replacing each other. Surely, the Italian children sincerely believe that at night the fountain comes to life: Neptune commands his newts, the soldier pours out into the sea shell, the girl in the niche points the way to the drinking source, but ... with the appearance of the first sun rays, they all solidify again.
The Square of Venice
To the next object in our route is the same Via del Corso. The square of Venice was named after the palace built in the 15th century for the Venice Cardinal Pietro Barbo. Later, there was an embassy of the Venetian Republic, and now there is a museum.
However, now the main attraction of this square is not so much the Palace of Venice, as the white monument of Vittoriano, set in honor of the first king of United Italy, Victor Emmanuel II. Many Romans jokingly call this architectural ensemble a "typewriter" or a "wedding cake". Well, local it is permissible, but we will agree to call it the Altar of the Fatherland, especially since before the equestrian statue of King Victor Emmanuel II is the grave of an unknown soldier.
Climbing the marble staircase of Vittoriano, you will get to the observation deck, from which a magnificent panoramic view of the center of Rome opens. Inside the monument are museums: Risorgimento, which keeps the memory of the national liberation movement in Italy, and the museum of the military fleet symbols.
The square of Venice is in close proximity to the Roman and Trajan's forums, therefore from ancient times it is considered the historical center of the city. In 2009, during the construction of the metro station, the remains of the ancient "school of fine arts" were found here accidentally. Historians say that it taught rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, logic and jurisprudence.
From the monument of Vittoriano to the Colosseum you will be led by a wide street of the Imperial forums. Instead of it, until the twentieth century, there were ruins of ancient buildings that supposedly belonged to the Golden House of Nero. And in place of the Colosseum, do not believe it, there used to be a pond!
The emperor Vespasian, who came to replace the despot Nero, decided to win the love of the Romans with new large-scale projects. So the Coliseum appeared - an amphitheater for mass spectacles. Here there were gladiatorial fights, animal attacks and even sea battles took place. Subsequently, the Coliseum was engulfed by a fire, then it suffered an earthquake, but perhaps the most destructive influence was on the person himself - many pontiffs used his stones as building material for palaces and basil.
Arch of Constantine
Near the Colosseum on the way to the Palatine is the Arc de Triomphe. It was built by Emperor Constantine in honor of his own victory over another Roman emperor - Maxentius.
Curious fact: almost all the decor of this arch is "borrowed" from other buildings. Explanations to that can be a little: did not find worthy masters, there were short terms of construction or simply took the details "for luck", as a symbol of the times of "good emperors" when the country reached its peak.
The height of the arch is 21 m, it has three spans. The largest of them reaches a height of 11.5 m, the lateral - just above 7 m. On the attic are located just 8 bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the life of the ruler. Sculptures above the columns are Dacians (Thracian tribes), presumably taken from the Trajan forum. The pair of medallions of two-meter diameter reflect the scenes of the battle with Maxentius and the storming of the city. And at the base of the column there are reliefs depicting the goddess Victoria, as well as Roman soldiers defeating the barbarians.
Pass through the arched spans you will not work, because the monument is fenced with a fence. But the impression is still amazing! There are only three triumphal arches in Rome, and the Arch of Constantine is the most well preserved among them.
We hope that the route showed you what you can see in Rome in one day. Although, from personal experience, Rome is the city where you want to return.